Additional Research: EPA

Learn more about the brain nutrition benefits of Omega-3 EPA

  • World Health Organization (WHO). Interim Summary of Conclusions and Dietary Recommendations on Total Fat & Fatty Acids. 2008 Nov 10; Available from: 
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (UN FAO). Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition: Report of an expert consultation. 2008 Nov; Available from:
  • The National Academy of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press; 2005. 1331 p. Available from:
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids:  Fact Sheet for Health Professionals [Internet]. National Institute of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. 2018 [cited 2018 Jul 12]. Available from: 
  • Keim SA, Branum AM. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish among US children 12–60 months of age. Maternal & Child Nutrition [Internet]. 2013 Sep 13 [cited 2018 Aug 17];11(4):987–98. Available from: 
  • Madden SMM, Garrioch CF, Holub BJ. Direct diet quantification indicates low intakes of (n-3) fatty acids in children 4 to 8 years old. J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):528–32. Available from: 
  • Harika R, C Cosgrove M, Osendarp S, Verhoef P, Zock P. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: A systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries. Vol. 106. 2011. Available from: 
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2018. Nutrient Intakes from Food and Beverages: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, by Gender and Age, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2015-2016. [Internet]. Available from: 
  • Innis SM. Dietary (n-3) fatty acids and brain development. J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137(4):855–9. Available from: 
  • Neubronner J, Schuchardt JP, Kressel G, Merkel M, von Schacky C, Hahn A. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in response to long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation from triacylglycerides versus ethyl esters. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb;65(2):247–54. Available from: 
  • Harris WS, Pottala JV, Sands SA, Jones PG. Comparison of the effects of fish and fish-oil capsules on the n 3 fatty acid content of blood cells and plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1621–5. Available from: 
  • Barrow CJ, Nolan C, Holub BJ. Bioequivalence of encapsulated and microencapsulated fish-oil supplementation. Journal of Functional Foods [Internet]. 2009 Jan 1;1(1):38–43. Available from: 
  • Germano M, Meleleo D, Montorfano G, Adorni L, Negroni M, Berra B, et al. Plasma, red blood cells phospholipids and clinical evaluation after long chain omega-3 supplementation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nutr Neurosci. 2007 Apr;10(1–2):1–9. Available from: 
  • Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L, Kuczek T, Grevstad N, Mahon A, et al. EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors. Lipids. 2003 Oct;38(10):1007–21. Available from: 
  • Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and brain, eye and nerve development (ID 501, 513, 540), maintenance of normal brain function (ID 497, 501, 510, 513, 519, 521, 534, 540, 688, 1323, 1360, 4294), maintenance of normal vision (ID 508, 510, 513, 519, 529, 540, 688, 2905, 4294), maintenance of normal cardiac function (ID 510, 688, 1360), “maternal health; pregnancy and nursing” (ID 514), “to fulfil increased omega-3 fatty acids need during pregnancy” (ID 539), “skin and digestive tract epithelial cells maintenance” (ID 525), enhancement of mood (ID 536), “membranes cell structure” (ID 4295), “anti-inflammatory action” (ID 4688) and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4719) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal. 2011;9(4):2078. Available from: